In women of childbearing age, a hormonal disease known as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can cause a number of undesirable health effects. PCOS is becoming more common among Indian women each year. In India, PCOS affects an estimated one-fifth of reproductive-age women. Young ladies are learning more about PCOS now than ever before.
Inquiring into whether or not one’s symptoms are indicative of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a growing trend that has more and more women making appointments with Gynecologists. Hopefully, after reading this article, ladies will have a clearer understanding of PCOS and be able to make more informed decisions about how to treat their condition.
Is PCOD the same thing as PCOS?
There is a distinction between the two disorders, even though the names PCOD and PCOS are frequently used interchangeably with one another. PCOD is a condition in which the patient’s ovaries take on a polycystic and swollen appearance. On the other hand, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a metabolic condition that is more severe.
PCOS is characterised by these three key features:
- a) Menstrual cycles that do not involve ovulation An anovulatory menstrual cycle is one in which the process of ovulation, which involves the release of an egg that has reached maturity, does not take place. This may present itself as periods that are not regular or problems becoming pregnant.
b.) Hyperandrogenism — High amounts of “male” hormones in your body can show physical indications such as excessive facial hair growth, thinning of scalp hair, or the breakout of acne.
c.) Ultrasound findings of polycystic ovaries – The ovaries appear enlarged in size with a volume greater than 10 cc, and they show more than 20 small follicles of abou2-8 mm diameter, forming a “String of Pearls” in each ovary.. This condition is known as polycystic ovary syndrome.
PCOS indicators and manifestations
The signs and symptoms of PCOS typically manifest themselves for the first time following a period of rapid weight increase. A very small percentage of women may experience the onset of symptoms during their teenage years. It’s possible that just a few women will uncover the issue when they have difficulty conceiving a child. The following is a list of typical signs and symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS):
1) Irregular periods – Because they do not ovulate consistently, the majority of women with PCOS have cycles that are late and contain little to no blood. During their periods, some women only have a dark brown or black discharge. Some women do not menstruate at all and must rely on medication to induce menstruation. Some women experience exceptionally regular menstrual periods. Conversely, some women with PCOS may have regular cycles with the normal amount of blood. Some women with PCOS have drastically delayed menstrual cycles, which can cause their periods to be significantly heavier and continue significantly longer
2) Hair growth (hirsutism) is a prominent and annoying symptom of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hirsutism refers to the excessive growth of coarse dark hair on the face, chest, abdomen, back, thighs, or upper arms. The elevated quantities of androgens that are seen in the body are the root cause of this condition.
3) Acne The effect of male hormones causes the skin to become oily, which can lead to clogged pores and the development of nodulocystic acne, particularly in the area around the beard and around the jawline.
4) Obesity—PCOS women are at risk of insulin resistance. PCOS causes rapid weight gain in women. Women with PCOS may struggle to reduce weight. Obese women with PCOS are more likely to develop diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease.
5) Dark velvety staining of skin folds and body creases, such as on the neck, in the groyne, armpits, or beneath the breasts, is an indication of insulin resistance that is typically noticed in people with PCOS who are overweight or obese.
6) Loss of Hair Loss of hair and a general thinning of the hair on the scalp is another indication of elevated testosterone levels.
7) Mood Disorders – Research has indicated that women who have PCOS have an increased chance of suffering from mood disorders such as anxiety or depression.
8) Headaches Women who have PCOS are more likely to experience headaches, which are often brought on by fluctuations in their hormone levels.
PCOS has no cure. Treatment reduces uncomfortable symptoms. Infertility treatment may involve normalising menstrual periods, removing acne and facial hair, or both. Therapies include
Symptom relief begins with lifestyle changes.Balanced diet with fresh veggies. Avoid fat, sugar, and calories. Reduce caffeine. Exercise often. Sleep is essential. Weight-for-height is ideal. Never smoke—it increases your risk of high blood pressure, cholesterol, and heart disease.
Doctors recommend birth control pills to manage periods. Birth control pills reduce hormones, reducing acne, hair loss, and hair growth.
In polycystic ovary syndrome women with abnormal glucose tolerance tests, metformin can cure insulin resistance. Spironolactone can suppress testosterone levels, reducing acne and facial hair growth.
Ovulation-stimulating medication is usually used to conceive. Metformin can assist. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling may be an option for PCOS-related infertility patients who have failed medication treatment. Some women need invasive in vitro fertilisation (IVF).
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