Services related to reproductive genetics in India
Children may be born with genetic abnormalities due to a host of factors. Genetic problems can lead to congenital disabilities and chronic illnesses. Hereditary disease running in the family, the mother’s advanced age during pregnancy, environmental factors, and even medicines are the primary reasons for genetic anomalies in children. Genetic causes can also lead to infertility and recurrent pregnancy losses.
There are advanced clinics in Delhi offering the best IVF in India, and their suite of services also includes reproductive genetics. Reproductive Genetics services include genetic screening and testing before conception, genetic testing during pregnancy to detect genetic abnormalities in the fetus, and genetic testing during in-vitro fertilization.
The following types of services are included under reproductive genetics.
Family history assessment
The existence of genetic diseases and abnormalities in the family is a cause for concern because the planned child is at risk of being afflicted with the genetic abnormalities. The genetic counselor reviews the couple’s medical history and their parents, siblings, cousins, and other close relatives. Risk factors are identified and discussed with the couple. If any of the partners has a family history of a known genetic disease, a specific genetic test can also be carried out to ascertain its risk of being passed to the child.
Chorionic Villus Sampling
CVS is a diagnostic test performed on the fetus to determine chromosomal or genetic abnormalities. CVS is done if the baby is at risk of genetic disorders due to family history or risk of chromosomal abnormalities due to the mother’s advanced age or other reasons.
In this method, a small amount of chorionic villi tissue is removed. Chorionic villi are present outside the gestational sac of the fetus. Since chorionic villi are fetal tissue, their genetic profile is the same as that of the fetus. The chorionic villi are subjected to certain tests to detect chromosomal abnormalities and genetic anomalies.
Amniotic fluid surrounds a fetus inside the amniotic sac. A small amount of this fluid is collected by a process known as amniocentesis. There are fetal cells present in this fluid. These cells are subjected to genetic and chromosomal tests to determine the presence or absence of suspected anomalies. The fluid is also tested for detecting biochemical, genetic diseases.
The best clinics offering IVF in Delhi also include Preimplantation Genetic Testing-Aneuploidy among their reproductive genetics services. This test is performed on embryos created in an IVF cycle. The purpose of this test is to detect chromosomal abnormalities or aneuploidy in the embryos before implantation. This test enables the specialist to select only that embryo that is free of chromosomal abnormalities.
PGT-M is another advanced reproductive genetics testing offered by the best IVF clinics in Delhi. PGT-M stands for Preimplantation Genetic Testing- Monogenic. This test is used to detect monogenic disorders such as Thalassemia, Muscular Dystrophy, or Haemophilia in the embryos created by the IVF cycle. This test is done for couples who have a family history of a monogenic disease or another child afflicted with it. Only the embryo free of the monogenic disorder is selected for implantation.