Genital Tuberculosis – Classification, Symptoms, Diagnostics And The Treatment
Genital tuberculosis is an infection of the female reproductive tract caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Genital tuberculosis manifests as menstrual dysfunction, infertility, low-grade fever, poisoning, and chronic pelvic pain. Diagnosis is based on recalled data, tuberculin test results, endometrial smear scraping, ultrasound, laparoscopy, and hysterosalpingography. Treatment of genital tuberculosis includes specific medications, physical therapy, and (if indicated) surgery.
Classification of genital tuberculosis
Genital tuberculosis is classified according to its clinical and morphological characteristics, but it has the following forms:
- Chronic: Because these symptoms are not obvious;
- Subacute: with initial symptoms, with exudation and hyperplasia;
- Cheese; accompanied by a serious disease course;
- The complete process of genital tuberculosis: the lesion is encapsulated.
According to the level of activity, genital tuberculosis is divided into active (developing more than two years), dying (developing from two to four years), and inactive (processes that still exist after treatment). If genital tuberculosis becomes more difficult after four years, which is called a worsening of the disease, the symptoms will recur after a long time.
Symptoms of the disease
The first signs usually appear at the age of 20-30 years, and rarely-in adolescent and postmenopausal women. The main and usually the only sign is infertility. The symptoms of tuberculosis are non-specific, similar to other inflammatory pathologies. These include:
- General poisoning, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and general malaise.
- Irregular menstruation (long periods, heavy and painful periods, amenorrhea).
- The cramping pain in the lower abdomen is aggravated by physical exertion and hypothermia.
- Irregular leucorrhea.
Diagnostics of the genital tuberculosis
Due to the lack of typical clinical manifestations, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Years after the onset of pathological symptoms, lubricating symptoms can cause patients to seek help. Sometimes, signs of genital tuberculosis are found after the body during an autopsy.
When a patient has a history of inflammatory lung disease or tuberculosis at any site in a clinical situation, the doctor may suspect the disease. If the girl does not have sex, the indications for a diagnosis of genital tuberculosis are no menstruation, a continuous rise in body temperature, and signs of inflammation of the ovaries and appendages.
Clinical guidelines on genital tuberculosis
Treatment of genital tuberculosis is carried out in specialized medical institutions and lasts from six months to two years. The complexity of treatment measures is because pathological pathogens rapidly mutate under the influence of drugs, and previously prescribed drugs often become ineffective. The therapy is based on chemotherapy using three anti-tuberculosis drugs.
What is the prevention of genital tuberculosis?
Prevention of genital tuberculosis should start from early childhood. From the first month of life, children need to be vaccinated with the BCG vaccine. The reintroduction of the vaccine occurred at the ages of 7, 12, and 17, and the human response reflected Mantoux.
Another preventive measure is to isolate patients with open, active forms to prevent mycobacteria from being passed on to another organism. Naturally, you need to take all measures to strengthen your body and strengthen your immunity.