What is female infertility?
In simple terms, infertility is a medical condition in which a woman can’t have children. This is usually found out after a year of trying to get pregnant without success by heterosexual couples (a man and a woman), but it could be found out sooner if there are other factors.
Causes of female infertility
Infertility can arise from a wide variety of factors. On the other hand, some couples have “unexplained infertility” or “multifactorial infertility,” which means they don’t know what causes their inability to have children. Often, male and female factors are involved.
Intramural uterine abnormalities include polyps, fibroids, septums, and adhesions. Polyps and fibroid tumors can form at any time, while septums are congenital. Even dilatation and curettage can cause adhesions (D&C).
Fallopian tube issues:
Infertility due to a “tubal factor” is typically caused by a pelvic inflammatory illness, which is most commonly brought on by chlamydia and gonorrhea.
There are many reasons why a woman might not be able to consistently ovulate (release an egg). For example, hormonal imbalances, a history of eating disorders or drug abuse, thyroid problems, stress, and pituitary gland tumors can all prevent ovulation from happening.
Egg quantity/quality issues:
A woman’s egg supply may “run out” before menopause since she gets all her eggs at birth. Another difficulty is that some eggs have incorrect chromosomes and cannot fertilize or develop into a normal baby. All eggs may have chromosomal abnormalities such as balanced translocations. Even if the other ones happen randomly, they happen more often as a woman ages.
If you have been trying to conceive for an extended period without success, you should consult a medical professional about infertility testing and treatment options. On your first visit to the infertility specialist in Delhi, he or she will do a full physical exam and ask you about your health.
During a regular physical exam at your fertility doctor’s office, there are many ways to find out what’s wrong. A few examples of such examinations are:
In-depth analysis of one’s physical condition.
A Pap test.
Ultrasound of the pelvis.
Detecting abnormal milk production using a breast exam.
There may be further tests that need to be conducted in a laboratory. Indicators such as these can be tested for
Blood testing: Your fertility doctor will choose lab tests based on your health history and diagnosis. Lab tests can be done on the thyroid, prolactin, ovarian reserve, and progesterone (a hormone made during the menstrual cycle that tells the ovaries to release an egg).
X-ray hysterosalpingogram (H.S.G.): The caregiver injects dye into the cervix and observes it flow down the fallopian tubes with an X-ray. With this analysis, we can see whether anything is blocking the way.
Laparoscopy: This test uses a laparoscope to examine the organs in the abdomen.
Transvaginal ultrasound: An ultrasound wand is put into the vagina instead of over the belly for this test. The ovaries and uterus can be seen more clearly, among other reproductive organs.
Saline sonohysterogram (S.I.S.): This test checks for polyps, fibroids, and other structural abnormalities in the uterine lining. During a transvaginal ultrasound, the uterus is filled with saline (water) so the fertility doctor can see inside.
Hysteroscopy: A flexible, thin, camera-equipped hysteroscope is introduced into the vagina and cervix. To inspect the uterus, the fertility specialists insert the device.
The treatment you receive for infertility will vary depending on its root cause, your age, how long you’ve been trying to conceive, and your preferences. Because infertility is a complicated medical condition, it takes time, energy, money, and other resources to treat it successfully.
You can use medicine or surgery to try to get pregnant again, or you can use modern reproductive technology to help you get pregnant.
Citrate clomiphene. This medicine, taken orally, induces ovulation by increasing pituitary hormon(FSH.H. and LH), which grow an ovarian follicle with an egg. This is the first treatment for non-PCOS women under 39.
Gonadotropins. The ovary produces more eggs with these injections. Gonadotropins (Gonal-F, Follistim AQ, Bravelle) include FSH and hMG (Menopur).
Another gonadotropin, human chorionic gonadotropin (Ovidrel, Pregnyl), matures eggs and releases them at ovulation. With gonadotropin use, there’s an increased risk of multiples and premature delivery.
Metformin. This medicine treats infertility caused by insulin resistance, usually in women with PCOS. Insulin resistance can be improved by metformin (Fortamet).
Letrozole. Letrozole (Femara) is an aromatase inhibitor like clomiphene. Letrozole is typically prescribed to PCOS patients under 39.
Bromocriptine. Bromocriptine (Cycloset, Parlodel), a dopamine agonist, may help women with pituitary gland hyperprolactinemia who are having trouble ovulating.
Several surgeries boost female fecundity. However, surgical interventions are rare due to the success of other reproductive therapies. Include:
Laparoscopic/hysteroscopic surgery. Surgery may remove pelvic or uterine adhesions, endometrial polyps, and some forms of fibroids that distort the uterine cavity.
Tuberculoscopy. Fallopian tubes that are blocked or full of fluid may need laparoscopic surgery to remove adhesions, widen a tube, or make a new tubal opening. In vitro fertilization improves conception rates, making this surgery rare. IVF success can be enhanced by tube removal or blockage near the uterus.
Interventions to Promote Fertility
Fertilization by intrauterine implantation (IUI) is one of the most commonly used reproduction aids. During IUI, millions of healthy sperm are introduced into the uterus at the time of ovulation.
A.R.T., or artificial reproductive technology. This process entails collecting eggs once they have reached maturity, fertilizing them in a petri dish in a lab, and then implanting the resulting embryos into the uterus. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the gold standard of reproductive science. In vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles typically last a few weeks and involve daily hormone injections and periodic blood testing.